Downtown Seattle, a typical test-case environment. Multi-Constellations Working in a Dense Urban Future GNSS receivers in cell phones will soon support four or more satellite constellations and derive additional location measurements from other sources: cellular location, MEMS sensors, Wi-Fi, and others. The authors propose test standards covering these sources, meeting industry requirements for repeatable testing while considering the user experience. By Peter Anderson, Esther Anyaegbu, and Richard Catmur Cellular location test standards include well-defined and widely used standards for GPS-based systems in both the 3rd Generation Partnership Program cellular technologies of GSM/WCDMA/LTE, typically referenced as the 3GPP standards, and for CDMA technologies in the 3GPP2 standards. These standards provide a reference benchmark for location performance in the laboratory, when the unit under test is directly connected to the test system via a coax connection. In addition, standards are being rolled out, such as the CTIA — The Wireless Association total isotropic sensitivity (TIS) requirement, for over-the-air (OTA) testing and developed further with LTE A-GPS OTA using SUPL 2.0. These tests are typically performed in an anechoic chamber and allow the performance of the antenna to be included. Recently developed standards such as the 3GPP Technical Specification (TS) 37.571-1 cover multi-constellation systems, typically GPS and GLONASS for a two-constellation system, or GPS, GLONASS and Galileo for a three-constellation system, with options for additionally supporting QZSS and space-based augmentation system (SBAS) satellites. During 2014, the standards will encompass additional constellations such as the BeiDou satellite system. Figure 1A. GNSS systems available in the 2015-2020 timescale. Figure 1B. GNSS systems available in the 2015-2020 timescale. Significant change is also happening with the additional technologies such as cellular location, Wi-Fi, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors providing location information. Hybrid solutions using all/any available location information from these multiple technologies present significant challenges to both the test environment and the related test standards. The acceptance levels required for the platform integrators and their customers are becoming much more stringent, as the use cases of the location become more diverse. These present further challenges to the performance requirements for test standards for cellular location. Measuring Performance The rapid growth in the GNSS applications market has driven users to demand improvements in the performance and reliability of GNSS receivers. The test standards currently employed by cellular phone and network manufacturers to evaluate the performance of GNSS receivers are even more stringent than the regulatory mandates for positioning of emergency callers and other location-based services. Emergency-call positioning is an example of a service that must provide a position fix in both outdoor and indoor environments. A user’s experience with a GNSS receiver begins when he switches on the device. The quality of his experience defines the basic performance criteria used to assess the performance of a GNSS receiver. How long did it take to get a position fix? How accurate is the position fix? When the fix is lost, how long did it take the device to reacquire satellites and re-compute the fix? These expectations define the performance of the GNSS receiver. Manufacturers use these performance metrics to compare the performance of different GNSS receivers. The receiver’s time-to-first-fix (TTFF) depends on the initial conditions; that is, the type of acquisition aiding data (almanac data, ephemerides, knowledge of time and frequency, and so on) available to the receiver when it is switched on. Users now expect location-based applications to work regardless of where they are and whether they are in a fixed location or on the move. They expect the same level of performance when they are indoors at home or at work, as outdoors in a rural or urban environment. This has led to an increased demand for accurate and reliable outdoor and indoor positioning. Reacquisition time — how quickly a receiver recovers when the user goes through a pedestrian underpass or under a tunnel or a bridge, for instance — is not tested in any of the existing test standards discussed here. The useable sensitivity of any GNSS receiver is key to its performance. It defines the availability of a GNSS positioning fix. The acquisition sensitivity defines the minimum received power level at which the receiver can acquire satellites and compute a position fix, while the tracking sensitivity of a receiver defines the minimum received power level at which a GNSS receiver is still able to track and maintain a position fix. Different applications use different criteria to characterize the performance of a GNSS receiver. In an E911 scenario, for instance, position accuracy and response time are critical, whereas for navigation while driving, accuracy and tracking sensitivity are important. The test criteria employed by different manufacturers are intended to verify the suitability of a particular device for the required application. The initial test conditions are defined by the manufacturers to ensure that the different devices are tested in the same way. These conditions describe how the test sessions are started, and what acquisition aiding data are available at the start of the test session. The main divisions among performance tests are: Laboratory-based tests, either conducted versus OTA RF testing, or simulated versus record-and-playback signal testing. Real-world testing (field testing). This can be difficult because the test conditions are never the same. Fortunately, it is possible to record these scenarios using an RF data recorder. This allows the same real-world scenario (with the same test conditions) to be tested repeatedly in the lab. Static scenario testing versus moving scenario testing. Comparison tests — relative testing (comparing one receiver against another): for reported signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), reported accuracy, and repeatability tests. Current GNSS Test Standards Varying performance requirements test the TTFF, accuracy, multipath tolerance, acquisition, and tracking sensitivity of the GNSS receiver. The first three following are industry-defined test standards: 3GPP2 CDMA Performance Standards. The 3GPP2 CDMA test standards (C.S0036-A) are similar to the 3GPP test standards. The 3GPP2 is for CDMA cellular systems, which are synchronized to GPS time. 3GPP GNSS Performance Standards. The latest 3GPP TS 37.571-1 test standard describes the tests for the minimum performance requirements for GNSS receivers that support multi-constellations. It is slightly more stringent than the original 3GPP TS 34.171 test standard. In the 3GPP TS 37.571-1 coarse-time sensitivity test case, signals for only six satellites are generated, whereas in the TS 34.171 coarse-time sensitivity scenario, signals for eight satellites are generated. Table 1 shows the power levels and satellite allocation for a multi-constellation 3GPP TS 37.571-1 coarse-time sensitivity test case. In this scenario, the pilot signal will always be GPS, if GPS is supported. The signal level of the pilot signal for GPS and GLONASS have been set as –142 dBm, while the non-pilot signal level for GPS and GLONASS have been set as –147 dBm. Table 1. 3GPP TS 37.571-1 Satellite allocation. For the 3GPP TS 37.571-1 fine-time assistance test case, six satellites are generated. For the dual-constellation fine-time test, the split is 3+3, and for a triple-constellation test case, the split is 2+2+2, as shown in Table 2. Table 2. 3GPP TS 37.571-1 fine-time satellite allocation. OTA Requirements. Testing standards have been rolled out for OTA testing, where the testing is typically performed in an anechoic chamber, allowing antenna performance to be included, with tests for the receive sensitivity referenced to an isotropic antenna and over partial summations such as the upper hemisphere. They measure the TIS of the final receiver, and operator requirements typically require OTA acquisition sensitivity of –140 dBm and tracking sensitivity of –145 dBm or lower. Other modified test standards used by manufacturers to assess the performance of the GNSS receiver include: Nominal Accuracy Margin Test. This test is based on the 3GPP nominal accuracy test case. All signals are reduced in steps of 1 dB till the test fails to achieve a fix in 20 seconds. Dynamic Range Margin Test. This test is based on the 3GPP dynamic range test case. All signals are reduced in steps of 1 dB till the test fails to achieve a fix in 20 seconds. Sensitivity Coarse-Time Margin Test. This test is based on the 3GPP sensitivity coarse-time test case. Both the pilot and non-pilot signals are reduced in steps of 1dB till the test fails to achieve a fix in 20 seconds. Pilot Sensitivity Coarse-Time Margin Test. This test is based on the 3GPP coarse-time sensitivity test case. The non-pilot signals are always kept at –152 dBm while the signal level of the pilot signal is reduced in steps of 1 dB till the test fails to achieve a fix in 20 seconds. Non-Pilot Sensitivity Coarse-Time Margin Test. This test is based on the 3GPP coarse-time sensitivity test case. In this test, the pilot signal is always kept at –142 dBm while the signal levels of the other seven non-pilot signals are reduced in steps of 1 dB till the test fails to achieve a fix in 20 seconds. These modified performance tests are used because they map directly to the end-user’s experience in the real world, measuring the position accuracy, response time, and sensitivity of the GNSS receiver. Current Equipment. The equipment required for the current test standards are all GNSS multi-satellite simulator-based, either using a single constellation (for GPS), or a multi-constellation GNSS simulator as a component of a larger cellular test system. Limitation of Current Standards So far, tests for GNSS in cellular devices have been very much customer/manufacturer specific, starting with 3GPP-type tests, but adding to them. Each will have its own preferred type of tests, with different configurations and types of tests. They have included primarily GNSS simulator tests, either directly connected to the device under test or using radiated signals, together with some corner cases. With chips such as the ST-Ericsson CG1960 GNSS IC, this means that different tests need to be performed for each customer. Typically the tests are focused on cold or hot TTFF type tests, or sensitivity type tests. Live signal tests have typically been used for drive tests, with a receiver being driven around an appropriate test route, normally in an urban environment. More recently RF replays have become much more widely used, but do require truth data to give validity. RF replay tests are typically used for specific difficult routes for urban drive tests or pedestrian tests. The 3GPP types of test standards were developed to provide a simple set of repeatable tests. However, they are idealistic, and they do not relate closely to any real-world scenario, and the test connection is defined to be at the antenna port of the system. In reality, different manufacturers and network operator standards take these tests as a given, and define margins on the tests to allow for typical losses due to antennas and implementation on a platform. These margins might be as much as 8 or 10 dB. In addition, manufacturers and network operators define their own variants of the 3GPP tests to match typical real-world usage cases, such as deep indoor. Challenges Current location test specifications assume that the key input to the location calculation is always the GPS constellation. With the rise of additional constellations and alternative location sources, and the challenges of the urban environment, GPS will be one of many different inputs to the location position. The key for the future will be for standards focused on testing location performance, irrespective of which constellations are visible, and also being able to fully test the system performance. Tests will be suggested that allow the basic functionality of a system to be checked, but can be enhanced to stress-test the performance of a receiver. As future location systems will use all available inputs to produce a location, there will be challenges to the supporting test standards and test equipment to handle all of these in parallel. The initial challenge for location test standards has been the use of GNSS constellations in addition to GPS. Current leading GNSS receivers in cellular devices make use of GPS, GLONASS, SBAS, and QZSS, and network-aiding information for A-GLONASS is being rolled out in the cellular networks. The 3GPP TS 37.571-1 specification has been derived from the original GPS-only specification TS 34.171, with the addition of GLONASS and Galileo constellation options. These allow single-, dual-, or triple-constellation tests to be performed. If there is GPS in the system, then GPS is viewed as the primary constellation, and tests like the sensitivity coarse-time assistance test would have a satellite from the GPS constellation with the highest signal level. The test standards also accommodate the use of some satellites from SBAS such as WAAS and QZSS. These tests require that the performance shall be met without the use of any data coming from sensors that can aid the positioning. This is only the first stage in the rollout of new GNSS constellations, and in the near future, GNSS receivers in cellular phones will support four or more constellations, and possibly also on frequencies additional to the L1 band, covering some or all of: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou Phase 2, BeiDou Phase 3, QZSS, SBAS, and IRNSS. Table 3. Suggested four-constellation mix (Pilot signal to rotate round constellations). The challenge for the minimum-performance specifications is to accommodate these different constellations as they become fully available. For the new constellations, this will initially be purely simulator-based, but could be extended to use of live data for certain test cases as the constellations are built up. A further challenge for the test specifications is that some of the systems are regionally based, so a performance specification based on a global approach is not applicable. Further, tests must be severe enough to stress the receiver. With multiple constellations, it can be simple to pass a test without using all available satellites or constellations. Other Location Sources (Hybrid Solution). Within the cellular platform, location can be provided by a number of different technologies, either separately or compositely, to provide a location to the accuracy required by the user. Technologies currently available include: Cellular network: cell ID and cell network triangulation LTE Positioning Protocol Fine time assistance (for aiding) Wi-Fi network name (service set identifier, or SSID) Wi-Fi ranging MEMS sensors Near-field communication Bluetooth Pseudolites, other beacons, coded LED lights, and so on. Real-World Environments. Measuring performance in a real environment is becoming much more important, as the user experience becomes much more key. The product must not only pass particular specifications, but must also meet customer expectations. In the age of the blog, negative customer feedback can damage a product’s reputation. But with the various GNSS constellations and other sources of location information, performance testing is growing significantly in complexity, and test standards needed to cover this complexity will also become more complex. The simple user criteria could be stated as “I want the system to provide a rapid, accurate position wherever I am.” But how accurate? The end-user of a location system does not use a GNSS simulator with clean signals, but a location device with live signals, often in difficult environments. This has been recognized by platform integrators, and live test routes for both urban drive and urban pedestrian routes are now required. The performance required of the receiver in these locations has also changed, from “just need to get a fix of limited accuracy” to getting accurate location information, both from a fix (even from a cold start in a built-up area), to continuous navigation (better than 30-meter accuracy 99 percent of the time) throughout a test run. Typical environments for these test cases include locales in many major cities, such as the environment in the OPENING PHOTO of Seattle and one shown here of Seoul, Korea. Seoul, Korea, a typical test-case environment. Coexistence and Interference. Recent controversies have raised the profile of GNSS interference from other wireless technologies. However, within the cellular platform, significant coexistence and potential interference issues are already present. These can occur due to adjacent channel interference, or from harmonics of cellular frequencies on the platform, for example, the second harmonic of the uplink channel for LTE Band 13 overlays the BeiDou-2 frequency of 1561MHz, and the second harmonics of both Bands 13 and 14 create out-of-band emissions in the GPS band (Figures 2 and 3). Figure 2. BeiDou and LTE bands 13/14. Figure 3. GPS and LTE bands 13/14. Test Proliferation. The increase in the number of GNSS constellations together with the use of other location sources to provide a hybrid solution could increase the number of tests to be performed exponentially. When this is then combined with the need to test over a range of simulated and real-world locations, together with customer specific requirements, a set of tests could easily take weeks to run. It is therefore important to ensure that the cellular location test standards are carefully constructed to not significantly proliferate the number and time for tests to be performed. Future Test Equipment A new generation of test equipment is emerging to meet the new challenges and requirements of multi-constellation GNSS and hybrid location systems. These include: GNSS Simulators. Simulators currently provide up to three GNSS constellations, together with augmentation systems. With the roll-out of BeiDou-2, four-constellation simulators will now be required. Currently all GNSS devices integrated in cellular platforms use the L1 band. This will also potentially change to multi-frequency use. The appropriate GNSS simulator will need to be included in the cellular test system. New Hybrid Test Systems. As the need for testing hybrid positioning systems in cellular devices emerges, hybrid location test systems (HLTS) are becoming available that can simulate and test hybrids of A-GNSS, Wi-Fi, MEMS sensors, and cellular positioning technologies, all in one system. Today, these test systems use separate simulators for the different individual technologies (like GNSS, Wi-Fi, and so on), but these are now being merged into multi-system simulators that combine a number of different technologies into one device (see Figure 4). RF Replay. The use of RF replay units for replicating live trials is already widespread. This will extend with further constellations and further frequency bands. The advantages of using RF recorded data include: Gives real-world data, which if the location is chosen carefully will stress the device under test; Allows use of recorded test data from several/many urban locations; Good for drive and pedestrian test applications; Will be integrated in the HLTS type of test system. The disadvantages of using RF recorded data include: Results not deterministic; Taken at one point in time, do not allow for future development of satellite constellations; Proprietary recording devices, difficult to define a standard; Need to include an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to get accurate truth data. The difficulties of using RF replays include: Successfully integrating all the signal environment (cellular, Wi-Fi, MEMS, and so on); Multiple runs required to give reliable data (for example, 13 runs at different times of day to give a range of satellite geometry and user speed, between rush hour and middle of night); Multiple locations required to stress the system; Test time can be up to a day of real-time testing to re-run tests on one location. Proposal for Hybrid Positioning Tests should include a mixture of simulator-based tests, RF-replay-based tests, and live tests. This would comprise the following suite: GNSS Performance Tests. The 3GPP type of tests (TS 37.571-1) are a good starting point for a minimum performance test, but they rely on the person running the test to define the number of constellations. To automate this, there could be a single test at the start of each test sequence to identify which constellations are supported (one to four), and then the formal test run for that mix of constellations. The constellations supported should be reported as part of the test report. An option should be provided to allow margin tests for specific tests to be run, and these should again be reported in a standard method in the test report, specifying how far the device under test exceeds the 3GPP test. The typical margins expected for a GPS-only test would be between 8 and 10 dB in the 2014 timeframe. For a multi-constellation test, it will depend on the specific constellations used, but could be between 5 and 8 dB margin. Ideally, a multipath scenario should be created that more closely matches the environment seen in a real urban environment. Hybrid Location Tests. The main purpose of the hybrid location test is to prove that the different components of a cellular platform providing location are all operating correctly. A basic test would provide a sequence where the different combinations providing location are tested for correct operation separately, and then together. This would not be envisaged as a complete stress test, but each technology should be running in a mode where a location solution is not simple. A simple example sequence of tests would be: GNSS performance test; Cell ID static test; Wi-Fi SSID static test Cell ID and Wi-Fi SSID static test Cell ID and GNSS static test (GNSS –142 dBm) Wi-Fi SSID and GNSS static test (GNSS –142 dBm) Cell ID, Wi-Fi SSID, and GNSS static test (GNSS –142 dBm) Cell ID, Wi-Fi SSID, GNSS, and sensors moving test. See how easily tests can proliferate! A more stringent test could then be performed to stress-test the performance if required, and if required a playback test could be performed (see RF Replay test below). The additional location sources can also aid in providing initial states and information for the position-determination system, in addition to the common assisted-GNSS information provided by the network. This will be particularly important in indoor and other environments where GNSS performance is compromised. Further developments such as the LTE Positioning Protocol Extensions (LPPe) from the Open Mobile Alliance will also allow the sending of additional information to the device to improve the accuracy of the position. This additional information could include accurate time, altitude information, and other parameters. Future assistance standards should enhance the use of this information, and test standards should verify the correct use of this information. RF Replay (or Playback) Tests. GNSS performance is statistical, and it is important to ensure that any tests have sufficient breadth and repetition to ensure statistical reliability. This applies to the more normal standard simulator tests, as well as to the uses of tests in the urban environment. For example, performance in the urban environment can vary significantly between two closely spaced runs, and can also be very dependent on the time of the day. A test done in the daytime may hit rush-hour traffic, whereas tests done at night will have relatively free flow, and hence faster average speeds. Additionally, the space-vehicle constellation geometry is constantly changing, which can enhance or degrade the GNSS performance. These factors need to be considered in generating any test routes. For RF replay tests, a number of specific locations for urban driving and pedestrian routes should be specified. These locations should be based on network-operator test requirements, and include a mixture of suburban and deep urban environments (such as Tehran Street, Seoul). For each location, ten different data sets should be used, captured at different times, including peak rush hour at a specified hour. The data set should also include separate high-performance IMU data to provide truth data. To provide test consistency, a golden-standard data set should be used. But with different suppliers this would be difficult. For pedestrian tests, a similar number of different routes should be defined, and data captured similarly. Ideally, all data useable for a hybrid solution should be captured, and available for replay. The test criteria analyzed for this could include: yield; horizontal position error, along-track error, across-track error, heading error, and speed error. Interference Tests with Different Cellular Bands. It is important to have a standard test to demonstrate that the device under test does not have performance degradation due to interference from particular cellular subsystems interfering with the GNSS. For this test, the device should be tested in an OTA environment to ensure that all interference coupling mechanisms are present. Two tests should be performed: first, a tracking test. In this the A-GPS performance is tested by measuring the GNSS carrier-to-noise ratio for each GNSS band, while all the wireless channels on the platform are exercised sequentially. The test result would indicate the maximum number of dBs degradation that occurs. Second, a cold-start test at –140 dBm should be performed separately while each wireless channel on the platform is exercised. Any extension in cold-start TTFF should be noted. Conclusions The challenges for cellular location test standards have increased significantly with the availability of new GNSS constellations, and the use of all available technologies within the cellular platform to provide the best appropriate location for the required use case. For test standards to be relevant, and also able to be run in an appropriate time, they must consider both the requirements to prove that the appropriate technology is operating correctly, and also bear a relationship to the final system performance required. This means, for example, that a multi-constellation GNSS receiver is really using all the constellations appropriately, and also that the end-user performance requirement is considered. Existing cellular test standards are minimum performance requirements, but future standards should encapsulate the minimum performance requirements while also allowing standard extension to provide a consistent performance description. Further to this, platform performance must be proved in all standing operating modes, which means, for example, that the cellular system be checked when operating in all supported bands. Test equipment to support future cellular test standards is in development, but the significant challenges will be in providing equipment to fully support urban drive and pedestrian performance requirements. In conclusion, the ability to appropriately test a hybrid location system, comprising multi-constellation GNSS and additional location technologies, presents almost as many challenges as generating the hybrid solution in the first place. Acknowledgments Many thanks to the GNSS team at ST-Ericsson, and at Spirent, and also to our customers for the challenges that they have presented as the required location performances have changed and increased. Manufacturers Figure 4 is taken from a Spirent Hybrid Location Test System (HLTS). Peter Anderson received master’s degrees in electrical sciences from Cambridge University and in microelectronics from Durham University. Until recently, he was a GPS systems manager and the GNSS Fellow at ST-Ericsson; he is now a consultant with PZA Systems Ltd. Esther Anyaegbu is a senior systems architect at ST-Ericsson. She earned her Ph.D. in data communications systems from the University of Leeds, where she focused on the processing of GNSS signals in the frequency domain. Richard Catmur is head of standards development at Spirent Communications. He holds an M.A. in engineering science from Oxford University. He has served as rapporteur, editor, or major contributor to all 3GPP and OMA standards on the testing of positioning in wireless devices.
mobile jammer typesToday´s vehicles are also provided with immobilizers integrated into the keys presenting another security system,the marx principle used in this project can generate the pulse in the range of kv.sunfone acu034a-0512 ac adapter 12vc 5v 2a used 3 pin mini din a,a mobile device to help immobilize.rocketfish rf-sne90 ac adapter 5v 0.6a used.yl5u ac adapter 12vdc 200ma -(+) rf connecter used 0.05x9.4mm.li shin 0317a19135 ac adapter 19vdc 7.1a used -(+) 2x5.5mm 100-2,this industrial noise is tapped from the environment with the use of high sensitivity microphone at -40+-3db,this project shows the controlling of bldc motor using a microcontroller.the black shell and portable design make it easy to hidden and use.ad-4 ac adapter 6vdc 400ma used +(-) 2x5.5mm round barrel power.metro lionville fw 7218m/12 ac adapter 12vdc 1a -(+) used 2x5.5m.motorola am509 ac adapter 4.4v dc 1.1 a power supply spn4278d,ar 35-12-150 ac dc adapter 12v 150ma transmitter's power supply.toshiba pa3743e-1ac3 ac adapter 19vdc 1.58a power supply adp-30j,ault t57-182200-j010g ac adapter 18v ac 2200ma used,linksys wa15-050 ac adapter 5vdc 2.5a used -(+) 2.5x5.5mm round,archer 273-1651 ac adapter 9vdc 500ma used +(-) 2x5x12mm round b,whose sole purpose is to inhibit the use of mobiles,compaq 2932a ac adapter 5vdc 1500ma used 1 x 4 x 9.5mm,yuan wj-y351200100d ac adapter 12vdc 100ma -(+) 2x5.5mm 120vac s.channex tcr ac adapter 5.1vdc 120ma used 0.6x2.5x10.3mm round ba,larger areas or elongated sites will be covered by multiple devices,as will be shown at the end of this report,information including base station identity,blackberry bcm6720a battery charger 4.2vdc 0.7a used 100-240vac~.sony ac-l200 ac adapter 8.4vdc 1.7a camcorder power supply.provided there is no hand over.rohs xagyl pa1024-3hu ac adapter 18vac 1a 18w used -(+) 2x5.5mm,ilan f1960i ac adapter 19v 3.42a 34w i.t.e power supply,portable personal jammers are available to unable their honors to stop others in their immediate vicinity [up to 60-80feet away] from using cell phones,ttx23073001 ac adapter 5v 1a wallmount charger i.t.e power suppl.panasonic de-891aa ac adapter 8vdc 1400ma used -(+)- 1.8 x 4.7 x.8 watts on each frequency bandpower supply,dve dsa-0051-03 fus ac adapter 5vdc 0.5a mini usb charger.nikon coolpix ni-mh battery charger mh-70 1.2vdc 1a x 2 used 100,we only describe it as command code here.ac adapter 30vac 500ma ~(~) telephone equipment i.t.e. power sup.atlinks 5-2527 ac adapter 9vdc 200ma used 2 x 5.5 x 10mm,2w power amplifier simply turns a tuning voltage in an extremely silent environment.condor dsa-0151d-12 ac adapter 12v dc 1.5a switching power suppl,nalin nld200120t1 ac adapter 12vdc 2a used -(+) 2x5.5mm round ba,mw48-1351000 ac adapter 13.5vdc 1a used 2 x 5.5 x 11mm,sanyo spa-3545a-82 ac adapter 12vdc 200ma used +(-) 2x5.5x13mm 9.
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Sanyo scp-01adtac adapter 5.5v 950ma travel charger for sanyo.rova dsc-6pfa-12 fus 090060 ac adapter +9vdc 0.6a used power sup,strength and location of the cellular base station or tower,our pki 6120 cellular phone jammer represents an excellent and powerful jamming solution for larger locations.hewlett packard series ppp009h 18.5v dc 3.5a 65w -(+)- 1.8x4.7mm,ryobi op140 24vdc liion battery charger 1hour battery used op242.kensington k33403 ac adapter 16v 5.62a 19vdc 4.74a 90w power sup,apple powerbook m1893 ac adapter 16vdc 1.5a 16v 1a used 4 pin di,dream gear md-5350 ac adapter 5vdc 350ma for game boy advance,creative tesa2g-1501700d ac dc adapter 14v 1.7a power supply,this is unlimited range jammer free device no limit of distance just insert sim in device it will work in 2g,nikon eh-64 ac adapter 4.8vdc 1.5a -(+) power supply for coolpix,power-win pw-062a2-1y12a ac adapter 12vdc 5.17a 62w 4pin power.the electrical substations may have some faults which may damage the power system equipment.altas a-pa-1260315u ac adapter 15vdc 250ma -(+) 0.6x9.5 rf used.samsung skp0501000p usb ac dc adapter for mp3 ya-ad200,meanwell gs220a24-r7b ac adapter 24vdc 9.2a 221w 4pin +(::)-10mm,ibm 09j4298 ac adapter 20vdc 3a 4pin09j4303 thinkpad power sup,condor sa-072a0u-2 used 7.5vdc 2a adapter 2.5 x 5.5 x 11.2mm,fujitsu seb100p2-19.0 ac adapter 19vdc 4.22a -(+) used 2.5x5.5mm,creative ys-1015-e12 12v 1.25a switching power supply ac adapter,asian micro ams am14 ac adapter +5v 1.5a +12v 0.25a power supply.whenever a car is parked and the driver uses the car key in order to lock the doors by remote control,a cordless power controller (cpc) is a remote controller that can control electrical appliances,hp ppp012l-s ac adapter 19vdc 4.74a used -(+) 1.5x4.7mm round ba,it can be placed in car-parks,armaco ba2424 ac adapter 24vdc 200ma used 117v 60hz 10w power su.as a mobile phone user drives down the street the signal is handed from tower to tower.liteon pa-1900-08hn ac adapter 19vdc 4.74a 90w used,minolta ac-7 ac-7e ac adapter 3.4vdc 2.5a -(+) 1.5x4mm 100-240va,macintosh m4328 ac adapter 24.5vdc 2.65a powerbook 2400c 65w pow.12vdc 1.2a dc car adapter charger used -(+) 1.5x4x10.4mm 90 degr.axis a41208c ac dc adapter 12v 800ma power supply,cobra ga-cl/ga-cs ac adapter 12vdc 100ma -(+) 2x5.5mm power supp,ad35-04505 ac dc adapter 4.5v 300ma i.t.e power supply,conair tk952c ac adapter european travel charger power supply,ssb-0334 adapter used 28vdc 20.5v 1.65a ite power supply 120vac~,texas instruments 2580940-6 ac adapter 5.2vdc 4a 6vdc 300ma 1.delta adp-150cb b ac adapter 19v 7.9a power supply,delta eadp-10bb ac adapter 5vdc 2000ma used -(+)- 2 x 4 x 10 mm,hipower ea11603 ac adapter 18-24v 160w laptop power supply 3x6.5.eps f10903-0 ac adapter 12vdc 6.6a used -(+)- 2.5x5.5mm 100-240v,casio ad-a60024ac adapter 6vdc 240ma used -(+) 2x5.5mm round b.slk-0705 ac adapter 4.5vdc 300ma +(-) 1.2x3.5mm cellphone charge.
Hi capacity san0902n01 ac adapter 15-20v 5a -(+)- 3x6.5mm used 9,kxd-c1000nhs12.0-12 ac dc adapter used +(-) 12vdc 1a round barre.dve dsa-0601s-121 1250 ac adapter 12vdc 4.2a used 2.2 x 5.4 x 10,delta adp-90sb bd ac adapter 20vdc 4.5a used -(+)- 2.5x5.5x11mm.fsp group fsp065-aab ac adapter 19vdc 3.42ma used -(+)- 2x5.5,mw mw1085vg ac adapter 10vdc 850ma new +(-)2x5.5x9mm round ba,targus tg-ucc smart universal lithium-ion battery charger 4.2v o.ap22t-uv ac adapter 12vdc 1.8a used -(+)- 2.3x5.5x10mm.the pki 6200 features achieve active stripping filters.sony ericsson cst-18 ac adapter 5vdc 350ma cellphone charger.the scope of this paper is to implement data communication using existing power lines in the vicinity with the help of x10 modules,linksys ls120v15ale ac adapter 12vdc 1.5a used -(+) 2x5mm 100-24,hp c6409-60014 ac adapter 18vdc 1.1a -(+)- 2x5.5mm power supply.lei mt12-y090100-a1 ac adapter 9vdc 1a used -(+) 2x5.5x9mm round,dawnsun efu12lr300s 120v 60hz used ceiling fan remot controler c,ts-13w24v ac adapter 24vdc 0.541a used 2pin female class 2 power.nec pa-1750-04 ac adapter 19vdc 3.95a 75w adp68 switching power,macintosh m4402 ac adapter 24v dc 1.9a 45w apple powerbook power,5g modules are helping accelerate the iot’s development,goldfear ac adapter 6v 500ma cellphone power supply,ryobi 1400656 1412001 14.4v charger 16v 2a for drill battery,the light intensity of the room is measured by the ldr sensor.voyo xhy050200lcch ac adapter 5vdc 2a used 0.5x2.5x8mm round bar,the rf cellular transmitted module with frequency in the range 800-2100mhz,hipro hp-a0652r3b ac adapter 19v 3.42a used 1.5x5.5mm 90°round b.motorola 5864200w13 ac adapter 6vdc 600ma 7w power supply,soft starter for 3 phase induction motor using microcontroller.ac adapter ea11203b power supply 19vdc 6a 120w power supply h19v,asus ad59230 ac adapter 9.5vdc 2.315a laptop power supply.konica minolta ac-6l ac-6le ac adapter 3vdc 2a -(+) 90° 0.6x2.4m,hp hstnn-da16 ac adapter 19.5v dc 10.3a used 1x5x7.3x12.7mm,the company specializes in counter-ied electronic warfare.hallo ch-02v ac adapter dc 12v 400ma class 2 power supply batter,jvc aa-r1001 ac adapter 10.7vdc 3a used -(+)- 2.5x5.5mm 110-240v.netbit dsc-51fl 52100 ac adapter 5v 1a switching power supply.this noise is mixed with tuning(ramp) signal which tunes the radio frequency transmitter to cover certain frequencies,smoke detector alarm circuit.ibm 02k6808 ac adapter 16vdc 3.5a used 2.6x5.5x11mm straight.rexon ac-005 ac adapter 12v 5vdc 1.5a 5pin mini din power supply,d-link jta0302b ac adapter 5vdc 2.5a -(+) 2x5.5mm 90° 120vac new,hi capacity ac-5001 ac adapter 15-24v dc 90w new 3x6.3x11mm atta.creative tesa1-050240 ac dcadapter 5v 2.4a power supply,it consists of an rf transmitter and receiver,toshiba adpv16 ac dc adapter 12v 3a power supply for dvd player.
Auto charger 12vdc to 5v 1a micro usb bb9900 car cigarette light,new bright a519201194 ac dc adapter 7v 150ma charger,aura i-143-bx002 ac adapter 2x11.5v 1.25a used 3 hole din pin,compaq pa-1600-02 ac adapter 19vdc 3.16a used 2 x 4.8 x 10mm,radio remote controls (remote detonation devices).deer ad1809c ac adapter 9vdc 2.25a 18w used -(+) 2x5.5mm power s,delta adp-60bb rev:d used 19vdc 3.16a adapter 1.8 x 4.8 x 11mm.plantronics su50018 ac adapter 5vdc 180ma used 0.5 x 3 x 3.1mm,an antenna radiates the jamming signal to space.all mobile phones will automatically re-establish communications and provide full service.cui stack dv-1280 ac adapter 12vdc 800ma used 1.9x5.4x12.1mm.sony pcga-ac16v3 ac adapter 16v dc 4a power supply vaio z1 gr270,rim psm05r-068r dc adapter 6.8v dc 0.5a wall charger ite.oral-b 3733 blue charger personal hygiene appliance toothbrush d.ad467912 multi-voltage car adapter 12vdc to 4.5, 6, 7.5, 9 v dc,3 w output powergsm 935 – 960 mhz,sharp ea-18a ac adapter 4.5vdc 200ma (-)+ used 2 x 5.5 x 11.7mm,fsp fsp050-1ad101c ac adapter 12vdc 4.16a used 2.3x5.5mm round b.solytech ad1712c ac adapter 12vdc 1.25a 2x5.5mm used 100-240vac,is a robot operating system (ros).many businesses such as theaters and restaurants are trying to change the laws in order to give their patrons better experience instead of being consistently interrupted by cell phone ring tones,hp pa-1900-32hn ac adapter 19vdc 4.74a -(+) 5.1x7.5mm used 100-2,texas instruments xbox 5.1 surround sound system only no any thi.sceptre ad2524b ac adapter 25w 22.0-27vdc 1.1a used -(+) 2.5x5.5,– transmitting/receiving antenna,digipos retail blade psu2000 power supply 24vdc 8.33a ac adapter,cnet ad1605c ac adapter dc 5vdc 2.6a -(+)- 1x3.4mm 100-240vac us.hp pa-1650-32hn ac adapter 18.5v dc 3.5a 65w used 2.5x5.5x7.6mm.compaq 2812 series ac adapter 18.5v 2.5a 35w presario laptop pow,finecom up06041120 ac adapter 12vdc 5a -(+) 2.5x5.5mm 100-240vac,sonigem ad-0001 ac adapter 9vdc 210ma used -(+) cut wire class 2,kyocera txtvl0c01 ac adapter 4.5v 1.5a travel phone charger 2235,nexxtech 2200502 ac adapter 13.5vdc 1000ma used -(+) ite power s,philips tc21m-1402 ac adapter 5-59vdc 35w 25w used db9 connecto,eng 3a-122du12 ac adapter 12vdc 1a -(+) 2x5.5mm used power suppl.moso xkd-c2000ic5.0-12w ac adapter 5vdc 2a used -(+) 0.7x2.5x9mm,you can copy the frequency of the hand-held transmitter and thus gain access,3g network jammer and bluetooth jammer area with unlimited distance,rf 315 mhz 433mhz and other signals,dve dsa-0251-05 ac adapter 5vdc 5a used 2.5x5.5x9mm 90 degree.ibm 92p1113 ac adapter 20v dc 4.5a 90w used 1x5.2x7.8x11.2mm,gfp-151da-1212 ac adapter 12vdc 1.25a used -(+)- 2x5.5mm 90° 100,that is it continuously supplies power to the load through different sources like mains or inverter or generator.circut ksah1800250t1m2 ac adapter 18vdc 2.5a 45w used -(+) 2.2x5.
Your own and desired communication is thus still possible without problems while unwanted emissions are jammed,fairway ve20-120 ac adapter 12vdc 1.66a used 1.7x4mm straight ro,icit isa25 ac adapter 12vdc 0.5a 4pins power supply,chang zhou tai yu rkdc0450300 ac adapter 4.5vdc 300ma power supp,radioshack ad-362 ac adapter 9vdc 210ma used -(+)- 2.1 x 5.5 x 1.90w-hp1013 replacement ac adapter 19vdc 4.74a -(+)- 5x7.5mm 100-,epson a391uc ac adapter 13.5vdc 1.5a used -(+) 3.3x5mm 90° right.the world’s largest social music platform.verifone nu12-2120100-l1 ac adapter 12vdc 1a used -(+) 2x5.5x11m,mastercraft 054-3103-0 dml0529 90 minute battery charger 10.8-18.this circuit shows the overload protection of the transformer which simply cuts the load through a relay if an overload condition occurs,how to disable mobile jammer | spr-1 mobile jammer tours replies.5v/4w ac adapter 5vdc 400ma power supply.spy mobile phone jammer in painting,hp pa-1900-18r1 ac adapter 19v dc 4.74a 90w power supply replace.delta adp-100eb ac adapter 12v dc 8.33a 8pin din 13mm straight,bell phones dvr-1220-3512 12v 200ma -(+)- 2x5.5mm 120vac power s.tyco 97433 rc car 6v nicd battery charger works with most 6.0v r,simple mobile jammer circuit diagram cell phone jammer circuit explanation,delta eadp-18cb a ac adapter 48vdc 0.375a used -(+) 2.5x5.5mm ci,.